Glossary

  • Accelerated learning

    Combining adult learning theory and whole brain learning theory in the learning environment to achieve a faster learning rate. Most practices are based on the work of Dr Georgi Lozanov at the University of Sophia in Bulgaria in the 1950s and 1960s.
  • Achievement

    A measurement of what a person knows or can do after training.
  • Action Research

    A research methodology designed to to investigate an element of a particular activity with the aim of determining whether changes to teaching produce effective and positive improvements, especially in student learning.
  • Active learning

    Active learning requires that students do things and think about what they are doing.
  • Adaptive technology

    software or hardware that enables people with disabilities to perform tasks that would be difficult or impossible with the assistance of technology.
  • ADDIE

    An acronym for an instructional systems design model whose components include: Analysis, Design, Development, Implementation, and Evaluation.
  • Advance organizer

    A general statement at the beginning of the information or lesson to activate existing cognitive structure or to provide the appropriate cognitive structure to learn the details in the information or the lesson.
  • Affective Domain

    A learning domain that refers to an idividual's appreciation, attitudes, interest, values, and/or psychological adjustment to a specific subject, topic or situation. Learning objectives and test items should allow individuals to illustrate these factors.
  • Affective learning

    The why in learning. Plays a part in the development of persistence and deep interest in a subject by incorporating affective elements in the learning goals.
  • Android

    Android is a mobile operating system developed by Google, based on the Linux kernel and designed primarily for touchscreen mobile devices such as smartphones and tablets. Android's user interface is mainly based on direct manipulation, using touch gestures that loosely correspond to real-world actions, such as swiping, tapping and pinching, to manipulate on-screen objects, along with a virtual keyboard for text input. In addition to touchscreen devices, Google has further developed Android TV for televisions, Android Auto for cars, and Android Wear for wrist watches, each with a specialized user interface. Variants of Android are also used on notebooks, game consoles, digital cameras, and other electronics.
  • Assessment

    Evaluating a learner's actual skill or knowledge level based on the expected skill or knowledge for a person in the same job, position, or assignment.
  • Assessment item

    A questionnaire or measurable activity used to determine if the learner has mastered a learning objective.
  • Asynchronous learning

    A self-paced learning event. Learners are online at different times and cannot communicate without time delay. Examples: courses taken via Internet, CD-ROM, Web presentation, or videotaped classes.
  • Attitudes

    A predisposition or a tendency to respond positively or negatively towards a certain idea, object, person, or situation. Attitude influences an individual's choice of action, and responses to challenges, incentives, and rewards (together called stimuli). Four major components of attitude are (1) Affective: emotions or feelings. (2) Cognitive: belief or opinions held consciously. (3) Cognitive: inclination for action. (4) Evaluative: positive or negative response to stimuli.
  • Audioconferencing

    Audioconferencing is a synchronous technology that requires same−time participation, and ideally same−place participation. Students can gather in small face−to−face groups and be linked as groups, rather than as individuals, via the telephone. Audioconferencing adds a level of interaction and discourse to the distance learning environment, although at the cost of some learner independence and flexibility. This trade−off needs to be carefully considered before committing to using audioconferencing as part of any educational programme. There are, of course, alternatives such as email lists and Internet discussion/bulletin boards, which facilitate interaction and discourse without restricting learner independence and flexibility to the same degree.
  • Augmented reality

    A combination of a real environment experienced by the user with virtual elements added by computer input that augment the scene with additional information.
  • Authentic learning

    Authentic learning is real life learning. It is a style of learning that encourages students to create a tangible, useful product to be shared with their world. Once an educator provides a motivational challenge, they nurture and provide the necessary criteria, planning, timelines, resources and support to accommodate student success. The teacher becomes a guide on the side or an event manager, a facilitator not a dictator. Processes become the predominant force and the content collected is organized appropriately into portfolios. Authentic learning engages all the senses allowing students to create a meaningful, useful, shared outcome. They are real life tasks, or simulated tasks that provide the learner with opportunities to connect directly with the real world.
  • Authentic tasks

    An authentic task is a task that native speakers of a language would do in everyday life. When learners do an authentic task they are doing something that puts real communicative demands on them.
  • Authoring tool

    Software application used to produce interactive learning materials that bring together all components of a course, such as text presentation, graphics, tracking, and links.
  • Belief

    A conviction to the truth of a proposition. Beliefs can be acquired through perception, contemplation or communication. In the psychological sense, belief is a representational mental state that takes the form of a propositional attitude. Knowledge is often defined as justified true belief, in that the belief must be considered to correspond to reality and must be derived from valid evidence and arguments.
  • Blackboard’s discussion board

    Blackboard’s discussion board was designed for asynchronous use, so users do not have to be available at the same time to have a conversation. An advantage of the discussion board is that user conversations are logged and organized. Conversations are grouped into forums that contain threads and all related replies.
  • Blog

    A web page that serves as a publicly accessible personal journal for an individual. Typically updated daily, blogs often reflect the personality of the author.
  • Brainstorming

    Brainstorming is a group or individual creativity technique by which efforts are made to find a conclusion for a specific problem by gathering a list of ideas spontaneously contributed by its members.
  • Broadcast

    Transferring learning content to many learners simultaneously, as in a satellite broadcast or an IP multicast. In an IP multicast, numerous learners can participate in a learning event that is broadcast over the network using the Internet Protocol from a single source.
  • Bulletin board

    This is an internet based method of communication. It is often called a forum as well. A bulletin board allows you to post messages on any topic the forum owner wants to cover.
  • Case study

    A printed description of a problem situation that contains enough detail to enable the learners to recommend a solution. The learners encounter a real-life situation under the guidance of an instructor or computer in order to achieve an instructional objective. Control of the discussion comes through by the amount of the detail provided.
  • CERMAT

    The Centre for Educational Research in Mathematics and Technology is located at the University of Potsdam at the Department of Mathematics, but we also have members at other places. CERMAT, Germany
  • Chat

    Text-based online interactive communication in real time sequencing of one-to-one or group messages in synchronous conferences.
  • Cinderella

    Cinderella is a Java based interactive geometry tool. The only available tool that gives correct solutions to typical geometrical problems.
  • Classroom management

    A term used by many teachers to describe the process of ensuring lessons run smoothly without disruptive behaviour by students. It is possibly the most difficult aspect of teaching for many teachers and indeed experiencing problems in this area causes many people to leave teaching altogether. It is closely linked to issues of motivation, discipline and respect.
  • Cognitive level

    A designation that identifies the knowledge and skills (mental or physical) a learner must display to prove mastery of a given reusable information object (RIO).
  • Cognitive load Theory

    This theory describes learning structures (schemas). Intrinsic cognitive load is associated with task difficulty, while extraneous cognitive load is associated to task presentation. The theory states that if both intrinsic cognitive load and extraneous cognitive load are high, then problem solving will either fail or be extreamly difficult. The idea is to lower or modifying the task presentation to a lower level in order to facilitate problem solving.
  • Cognitive maps

    A type of mental processing, or cognition, composed of a series of psychological transformations by which an individual can acquire, code, store, recall, and decode information about the relative locations and attributes of phenomena in their everyday or metaphorical spatial environment. Here, 'cognition' can be used to refer to the mental models, or belief systems, that people use to perceive, contextualize, simplify, and make sense of otherwise complex problems. As they have been studied in various fields of science, these mental models are often referred to, variously, as cognitive maps, scripts, schemata, and frames of reference.
  • Cognitive scaffolding

    Cognitive scaffolding is a teaching strategy that was cleverly named for the practical resemblance it bears to the physical scaffolds used on construction sites. The strategy consists of teaching new skills by engaging students collaboratively in tasks that would be too difficult for them to complete on their own. The instructor initially provides extensive instructional support, or scaffolding, to continually as- sist the students in building their understanding of new content and process. Once the students inter- nalize the content and/or process, they assume full responsibility for controlling the progress of a given task. The temporary scaffolding provided by the instructor is removed to reveal the impressive perma- nent structure of student understanding.
  • Cognitivism

    Cognitivism is somewhat the converse of behaviourism, as it deals more with how an individual’s mind works, thinks, remembers and learns. It holds that learner-constructed, relevant knowledge that is built upon prior knowledge is more likely to be acquired and retained for practical use, and in time, the action that this knowledge produces may become an entirely automatic program within the learner.
  • Cognitivist learning theory

    Focuses on what a learner is thinking in terms of processing information for storage and retrieval.
  • Collaborative learning

    Collaborative learning is based on a student-centered model in which learners are active participants and share ideas in a community setting to deepen understanding, promote the spirit of learning, and increase competence in working with others. A collaborative learning environment encourages students to state their opinions and differences while constructing beliefs and meaning (see also zone of proximal development).
  • Collaborative Learning

    An instructional method that emphasises students working together in small groups to complete a task or reach a common goal; in some cases students may be responsible for each other's learning.
  • Computer-based training

    Use of a computer to deliver instructions to learners using a variety of instructional strategies to meet individual learners needs.
  • Computer-based training (CBT)

    Any instructional event that can be accessed via a standalone computer.
  • Concept mapping

    A technique for visualizing the relationships between different concepts. A concept map is a diagram showing the relationships between concepts. Concepts are connected with labelled arrows, in a downward-branching hierarchical structure. The relationship between concepts is articulated in linking phrases, e.g., "gives rise to", "results in", "is required by," or "contributes to". Concept mapping serves several purposes. One, which takes place via knowledge elicitation, is to represent the mental models, i.e., the cognitive map of individuals, teams and organizations.
  • Constructivism

    The learner interacts with objects, events, and other people to gain understanding about their features by piecing information together in a meaningful whole.
  • Constructivist theory

    Knowledge is constructed by the learner through experiential learning and interactions with the environment and the learner’s personal workspace.
  • Content analysis

    Content analysis is a research tool used to determine the presence of certain elements such as facts, theories or concepts within texts or sets of texts. Researchers quantify and analyze the presence, meanings and relationships of such elements, then make inferences about the messages within the texts, the writer(s), the audience, and even the culture and time of which these are a part. Texts can be defined broadly as books, book chapters, essays, interviews, discussions, newspaper headlines and articles, historical documents, speeches, conversations, advertising, theater, informal conversation, or really any occurrence of communicative language.
  • Course Management System (CMS)

    Software that automates the administration of a class web site. These often include modules for online class discussions, grade books, homework turn-in and pickup, class calendars, and tools to make it easy to upload documents and link to electronic course reserves.
  • Critical thinking

    Complex intellectual reasoning that involves logical thinking, questioning assumptions, and assessing evidence put forth by others before accepting it as valid or applicable.
  • Curriculum

    A predefined series of learning events designed to meet a specific goal, such as certifying in a particular area or achieving required job skills and knowledge.
  • Cyber Learning

    Learning by means of a computer, especially over the Internet.
  • Debate

    Debate is a formal contest of argumentation between two teams or individuals. More broadly, and more importantly, debate is an essential tool for developing and maintaining democracy and open societies. More than a mere verbal or performance skill, debate embodies the ideals of reasoned argument, tolerance for divergent points of view and rigorous self-examination. Debate is, above all, a way for those who hold opposing views to discuss controversial issues without descending to insult, emotional appeals or personal bias. A key trademark of debate is that it rarely ends in agreement, but rather allows for a robust analysis of the question at hand. Perhaps this is what French philosopher Joseph Joubert meant when he said: “It is better to debate a question without settling it, than to settle a question without debating it.”
  • Deductive learners

    Students who prefer starting with more structure, deriving consequences and applications from the concepts and theories.
  • Deductive reasoning

    Deductive reasoning is a logical process in which a conclusion is based on the concordance of multiple premises that are generally assumed to be true. Deductive reasoning is sometimes referred to as top-down logic. Its counterpart, inductive reasoning, is sometimes referred to as bottom-up logic. Where deductive reasoning proceeds from general premises to a specific conclusion, inductive reasoning proceeds from specific premises to a general conclusion.
  • Diagram

    A diagram is a two-dimensional geometric and can be three-dimensional also symbolic representation of information according to some visualization technique. They have been used since ancient times but became more prevalent during the Enlightenment.
  • Digital library

    Library support services, resources, and aggregated electronic data provided to students who are primarily studying online.
  • Digital Storytelling

    Digital storytelling refers to a short form of digital media production that allows everyday people to share aspects of their life story. "Media" may include the digital equivalent of film techniques (full-motion video with sound), animation, stills, audio only, or any of the other forms of non-physical media (material that exists only as electronic files as opposed to actual paintings or photographs on paper, sounds stored on tape or disc, movies stored on film) which individuals can use to tell a story or present an idea.
  • Discovery learning

    Learning without a teacher; usually in a controlled (i.e. pre-designed) set-up, and under supervision.
  • Discovery learning

    Discovery learning is a technique of inquiry-based instruction and is considered a constructivist based approach to education. It is supported by the work of learning theorists and psychologists Jean Piaget, Jerome Bruner, and Seymour Papert. Although this form of instruction has great popularity.
  • Discussion group

    A discussion group is an online forum for individuals to discuss various topics amongst each other. People add their comments by posting a block of text to the group. Others can then comment and respond. In the early days of the Internet, USENET was the most popular type of discussion group, but now discussions mostly take place over the World Wide Web using special server software.
  • Distance education

    A process of formal education that is characterized by asynchronous and synchronous interaction between a student and instructor who are not in the same location.
  • Distance learning

    Situation in which the instructor and students are separated by time, location, or both. Courses are delivered to remote locations via synchronous or asynchronous means.
  • Dynamic Geometry

    Interactive geometry software (IGS, or dynamic geometry environments, DGEs) are computer programs which allow one to create and then manipulate geometric constructions, primarily in plane geometry. In most IGS, one starts construction by putting a few points and using them to define new objects such as lines, circles or other points. After some construction is done, one can move the points one started with and see how the construction changes.
  • Dynamic geometry software

    Dynamic Geometry software lets you interactively explore Euclidean, transformational and analytical geometry on your PC, Mac ... etc.
  • E-book

    Information and graphics that have been organized in electronic or computerized lessons or chapters and made available via computer or portable devices.
  • E-collaboration

    E-collaboration defined as collaboration, which is conducted without face-to-face interaction among individuals or members of virtual teams engaged in a common task using information and communication technologies.
  • E-learning

    Learning that takes place off-site using a variety of delivery technologies such as, Internet and mobile devices. Learners can access the material anywhere, and at anytime in synchronous, asynchronous, instructor-led, computer-based, or any combination of these approaches.
  • E-learning 2.0

    The application of the principles of Web 2.0 to learning, specifically the collaboration and creation aspects leading to more student-centred learning
  • E-Lecture

    An online lecture is an educational lecture designed to be posted online. Lectures are recorded to video, audio or both, then uploaded and made viewable on a designated site. Students may go to a certain designated site to view the lecture online at a time which is convenient for them.
  • E-portfolio

    An e-portfolio is a digitized collection of documents and resources that represent an individual’s achievements. The user can manage the contents and usually grant access to appropriate people. There are currently a variety of different types of e-portfolios with varied functionality. E-portfolios are increasingly being used for coursework and other assessment purposes.
  • EduCamp

    Education for Sustainable Development beyond the Campus.
  • Education for Sustainable Development

    Sustainable development cannot be achieved by technological solutions, political regulation or financial instruments alone. We need to change the way we think and act. This requires quality education and learning for sustainable development at all levels and in all social contexts. Education for Sustainable Development (ESD) is about enabling us to constructively and creatively address present and future global challenges and create more sustainable and resilient societies.
  • Educational technology

    A domain that creates systematic solutions to educational problems. Often misinterpreted as an IT function, it is a widely integrated field combining expertise and practice in educational psychology and philosophy, instructional design, multimedia, hard and soft technology systems and organizational management to create or manage learning resources and environments.
  • Effective communication skills

    Effective communication skills are fundamental to success in many aspects of life. Many jobs require strong communication skills and socially people with improved communication skills usually enjoy better interpersonal relationships with friends and family. Effective communication is a key interpersonal skill and by learning how we can improve our communication has many benefits. Communication is a two way process so improving communication involves both how we send and receive messages.
  • Efficiency

    A measure (as a percentage) of the actual output to the standard output expected. Efficiency measures how well someone is performing relative to expectations.
  • Electronic classroom

    Is an online classroom that allows participants to communicate, view presentations, interact -live- with learning resources and the presenter.
  • Engagement

    The sentiment a student feels or does not feel towards learning or the learning environment.
  • ESD

    Education for Sustainable Development (ESD) is about enabling us to constructively and creatively address present and future global challenges and create more sustainable and resilient societies. Sustainable development cannot be achieved by technological solutions, political regulation or financial instruments alone. We need to change the way we think and act. This requires quality education and learning for sustainable development at all levels and in all social contexts.
  • EUKLID

    Euclidean geometry is a mathematical system attributed to the Alexandrian Greek mathematician Euclid, which he described in his textbook on geometry.
  • Evaluation

    Any method used to gather information about the impact or effectiveness of a learning event. Measurements might be used to improve the offering, determine if the learning objectives were achieved, or determine if the offering has been of value to the organization.
  • Experiential learning

    Experiential learning, based on the work of Piaget, Lewin, Kolb and others, requires that learners reflect on experience, devise, and subsequently test, general rules.
  • Facilitator

    An online or blended course instructor who supports and assists students in self-actualized learning. An online course facilitator provides a student-centered learning environment, acting as a coach and partner rather than as a lecturer or information transmitter.
  • Feedback

    Interaction between the learner and the instructor or system. Feedback increases the quality of the learning experience.
  • Field trip

    A field trip or excursion, known as school trip in the UK, New Zealand, Philippines and school tour in Ireland, is a journey by a group of people to a place away from their normal environment. The purpose of the trip is usually observation for education, non-experimental research or to provide students with experiences outside their everyday activities, such as going camping with teachers and their classmates. The aim of this research is to observe the subject in its natural state and possibly collect samples.
  • File Transfer Protocol (FTP)

    File Transfer Protocol (FTP) is a standard Internet protocol for transmitting files between computers on the Internet. Like the Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP), which transfers displayable Web pages and related files, and the Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP), which transfers e-mail, FTP is an application protocol that uses the Internet's TCP/IP protocols. FTP is commonly used to transfer Web page files from their creator to the computer that acts as their server for everyone on the Internet. It's also commonly used to download programs and other files to your computer from other servers.
  • Flowcharts

    A flowchart is a type of diagram that represents an algorithm, workflow or process, showing the steps as boxes of various kinds, and their order by connecting them with arrows. This diagrammatic representation illustrates a solution model to a given problem.
  • Formative assessment

    Learner assessment conducted as part of the instructional content or approach: questions and assignments designed to help the student to learn but not to be used as outcome measures.
  • Formative evaluation

    Systematic collection and appraisal of evidence that can be used to make improvements while the course or program are being developed or tested.
  • GeoGebra

    A geometry package providing for both graphical and algebraic input. Includes the program and worksheets.
  • GEONExT

    Geonext is an interactive geometry software.
  • Goal

    usually defines what the educator is trying to achieve or what the educator is intending to do overall; an aim tells students what a programme or course is about.
  • Halo effect

    A result in which people behave differently because they are being observed.
  • Hands-on

    Student practice on actual equipment, simulators, or training aids.
  • Hard skills

    As opposed to soft skills. Skills to perform where job requirements are well defined in terms of actions to be taken and expected outcomes.
  • Hidden curriculum

    Draws to the idea that schools do more than simply transmit knowledge, as laid down in the official curricula. It is often used to criticize the social implications, political underpinnings, and cultural outcomes of modern educative activities. While early examiations were concerned with identifying the anti-democratic nature of schooling, later studies have taken various tones, including those concerned with socialism, capitalism, and anarchism in education.
  • Holoportation

    Holoportation is a new type of 3D capture technology that allows high-quality 3D models of people to be reconstructed, compressed and transmitted anywhere in the world in real time. When combined with mixed reality displays such as HoloLens, this technology allows users to see, hear, and interact with remote participants in 3D as if they are actually present in the same physical space. Communicating and interacting with remote users becomes as natural as face-to-face communication.
  • Human-computer interaction (HCI)

    Concerned with the design, evaluation and implementation of interactive computing systems for human use, and with the study of major phenomena surrounding them.
  • Hybrid Reality

    Hybrid Reality, sometimes referred to as Mixed reality (MR), is the merging of real and virtual worlds to produce new environments and visualizations where physical and digital objects co-exist and interact in real time. Mixed reality takes place not only in the physical world or the virtual world, but is a mix of reality and virtual reality, encompassing both augmented reality and augmented virtuality.
  • Hypermedia

    Information structured like hypertext, that also includes sound, images, animation or video.
  • Inductive reasoning

    Inductive reasoning is the process where a small observation is used to infer a larger theory, without necessarily proving it.
  • Informal learning

    Informal learning occurs when people have a need to know something. They set their own learning objectives and acquire knowledge, skills and information in their own ways. This could be through asking questions, observing experts, practicing and conversing. It’s the kind of natural learning humans do outside of a structured environment.
  • Inquiry Based Learning

    Learning methodology where students are presented with a problem to solve using knowledge and skills they have acquired or need to develop. Also known as problem based learning.
  • Instructional design

    A systematic approach to designing learning materials based on learning theories and research. A process of activities aimed at creating a solution for an instructional problem– resolving instructional problems through systematic analysis of learning conditions. This process is often referred as ADDIE to describe the ID phases of analysis, design, development, implementation and evaluation.
  • Instructional games

    Instructional games are software developed to motivate students' learning through competition and student developed games. Games have been suggested as an effective approach for engaging students in the activities of scientists, particularly those activities associated with reasoning, choice, and communication.
  • Interactive multimedia

    Interactive multimedia allows learners to provide input to an online course and receive feedback as a result of the input. The input might consist of a mouse click or drag, gestures, voice commands, touching an input screen, text entry and live interactions with connected participants.
  • Interactivity

    Instruction that requires interaction through the learner and a product or service. The product or service should be able to sense and respond in order to maintain the learner's interest, provide practice, and/or reinforce prior learnings.
  • Internet forum

    An Internet forum is a discussion area on a website. Website members can post discussions and read and respond to posts by other forum members. A forum can be focused on nearly any subject and a sense of an online community, or virtual community, tends to develop among forum members. This type of forum may also called a message board, discussion group, bulletin board, or web forum, but it differs from a blog, the name for a web log, as a blog is usually written by one user and usually only allows for the responses of others to the blog material. A forum usually allows all members to make posts and start new topics. An Internet forum is also different from a chat room. Members in a chat room usually all chat or communicate at the same time, while members in a discussion group post messages to be read by others whenever they happen to log on. Forums also tend to be more topic-focused than chat rooms.
  • Internet of Things

    Definition - What does Internet of Things (IoT) mean? The Internet of Things (IoT) is a computing concept that describes a future where everyday physical objects will be connected to the Internet and be able to identify themselves to other devices. The term is closely identified with RFID as the method of communication, although it also may include other sensor technologies, wireless technologies or QR codes. The IoT is significant because an object that can represent itself digitally becomes something greater than the object by itself. No longer does the object relate just to you, but is now connected to surrounding objects and database data. When many objects act in unison, they are known as having "ambient intelligence."
  • Intrinsic motivation

    Evident when people engage in an activity for its own sake, without some obvious external incentive present. A hobby is a typical example.
  • Knowledge

    Information of which someone is aware. Knowledge is also used to mean the confident understanding of a subject, potentially with the ability to use it for a specific purpose. The unreliability of memory limits the certainty of knowledge about the past, while unpredictability of events yet to occur limits the certainty of knowledge about the future. Epistemology is the philosophical study of the nature, origin, and scope of knowledge.
  • Learner-centered

    In contrast to teacher-centered (the teacher dispenses knowledge), this describes the view that learners collaborate to construct knowledge and achieve deeper learning.
  • Learning content management systems (LCMS)

    Content management systems specifically designed for managing learning materials. Typically, they include a searchable learning object repository or database.
  • Learning disability

    A psychological or neurological condition that affects a person s ability to communicate and/or learn effectively. Includes conditions such as dyslexia (reading difficulty), dysgraphia (writing difficulty), dyscalculia (difficulty with mathematics), and aphasia (problems comprehending language).
  • Learning management systems (LMS)

    Synchronous and asynchronous learning environments that incorporate tools for teaching and learning management. They are electronic platforms that can be used to launch and track e-learning courses and enhance face-to-face instruction with online components. Some also manage classroom instruction. Primarily they automate the administration of learning by facilitating and then recording learner activity. They may or may not include tools for creating and managing course content. Computer software designed to manage the organization, delivery, and tracking of online courses and learner performance. They are sometimes called virtual learning environments (VLE) or course management systems (CMS). Corporate learning management systems are also designed to manage classroom instruction.
  • Learning objective

    A statement that establishes a measurable outcome. An objective is used as an advanced organizer to indicate how the learner's acquisition of skills and knowledge will be measured.
  • Learning Outcome

    A learning outcome is a statement which describe what a student is expected to know, understand and be able to do by the end of the course.
  • Learning Style

    The various preferences and methods employed by learners in the process of learning.
  • Lecture

    An oral presentation intended to teach people about a particular subject, for example by a university or college teacher. Lectures are used to convey critical information, history, background, theories and equations. A politician's speech, a minister's sermon, or even a businessman's sales presentation may be similar in form to a lecture. Usually the lecturer will stand at the front of the room and recite information relevant to the lecture's content.
  • Lesson plan

    A written guide for trainers plans in order to achieve the intended learning outcomes. It provides specific definition and direction on learning objectives, equipment, instructional media material requirements, and conduct of the training.
  • M-learning

    Mobile learning: learning delivered through mobile devices such as wireless laptops, cell phones, PDAs, smart phones, tablet PCs, etc.
  • Mastery learning

    An instructional method that presumes all children can learn if they are provided with the appropriate learning conditions. Specifically, mastery learning is a method whereby students are not advanced to a subsequent learning objective until they demonstrate proficiency with the current one.
  • Meaningful learning

    The degree of knowledge and information acquisition, transformation, assimilation and retention in a learner seems to be dependent upon the significance or meaningfulness of it all to the learner. Thus, meaningful learning is concerned more with creating true or deeper understandings, rather than behavioural changes alone.
  • Metacognition

    The process of thinking about how one thinks, learns, or applies cognitive abilities.
  • Metacognitive skills

    Learners use their metacognitive skills to assess their level of achievement, determine alternate strategies, select the most appropriate strategy, and then re-assess the level of achievement.
  • Metadata

    Information about content that allows it to be stored in and retrieved from a database.
  • Mind mapping

    Technique invented by Tony Buzan following research on note taking procedures which proved that if a learner writes down own key words then retention was maximized.
  • Mixed Reality

    Mixed reality (MR), sometimes referred to as hybrid reality, is the merging of real and virtual worlds to produce new environments and visualizations where physical and digital objects co-exist and interact in real time. Mixed reality takes place not only in the physical world or the virtual world, but is a mix of reality and virtual reality, encompassing both augmented reality and augmented virtuality.
  • Moodle

    Moodle is an open source eLearning platform, probably the biggest OS project of its type.
  • Motivation

    Motivation is a theoretical construct, used to explain behavior. Motives are hypothetical constructs, used to explain why people do what they do, for example, when they use some strategy to achieve a goal. According to Maehr and Meyer, "Motivation is a word that is part of the popular culture as few other psychological concepts are".
  • Multimedia

    Encompasses interactive text, images, sound, and color. Multimedia can be anything from a simple PowerPoint slide slow to a complex interactive simulation.
  • Multimedia elements

    Multimedia is media that uses content in different forms. The six major elements of multimedia include text, audio, images, video, animation, and interactivity. Multimedia is usually associated with electronic devices, but can be used during a live performance.
  • Needs analysis

    A method used to determine training needs by reviewing work tasks, identifying performance factors and objectives, and defining training objectives and recommendations.
  • Observational learning

    Learning that occurs as a function of observing, retaining and replicating behavior observed in others. It is most associated with the work of psychologist Albert Bandura, who implemented some of the seminal studies in the area and initiated social learning theory. Although observational learning can take place at any stage in life, it is thought to be particularly important during childhood, particularly as authority becomes important.
  • Ontology

    An ontology is defined as a formal, explicit specification of a shared conceptualisation. It provides a common vocabulary to denote the types, properties and interrelationships of concepts in a domain.
  • Open Ended Questions

    Questions that do not have predetermined answers and allow the responder to develop a unique, personal response.
  • Paradigm shift

    The term first used by Thomas Kuhn in his famous 1962 book The Structure of Scientific Revolutions to describe the process and result of a change in basic assumptions within the ruling theory of science. Don Tapscott was the first to use the term to describe information technology and business in his book of the same title. It has since become widely applied to many other realms of human experience as well.
  • Pedagogical practices

    Traditional instructional approaches that involve learning based on the unit of content and the constructivist model, active learning, teaching to diverse learning styles, student-to-student interaction, and use of multiple learning outcome assessments.
  • Pedagogy

    The art or science of teaching. The word comes from the ancient Greek paidagogos, the slave who took little boys to and from school as part of paideia. The word "paidia" refers to children, which is why some like to make the distinction between pedagogy (teaching children) and andragogy (teaching adults). The Latin word for pedagogy, education, is much more widely used, and often the two are used interchangeably.
  • Peer Assessment

    Assessment completed by other students in the same discipline.
  • Peer Learning

    Form of learning in which students are engaged in teaching each other material.
  • Portal

    A specific view into a Web site. The view identifies available offerings that match a person’s request.
  • Portfolio

    Collection of work completed by a person over time to demonstrate abilities and competencies.
  • Portfolio Assessment

    Assessment of a portfolio intended to judge the students development and current state of knowledge and skills.
  • Practices

    Activities that reinforce the material being learned and give the learner an opportunity to apply skills and knowledge. Some practices provide feedback and mentoring. The learner’s performance may or may not be affected by the results of the practice activities. Practice activities include case studies, learning activities, practice quizzes, practice tests, testing quizzes, and practice labs.
  • Prescriptive learning

    Matching a learner with offerings designed to fill gaps in the learner’s knowledge and skills.
  • Problem Based Learning

    used to describe the method of presenting problems to students to facilitate learning by adopting problem-solving techniques. Sometimes the problems may have several solutions, other times they may have none.
  • Problem-based

    Learners investigate a specific scenario either individually or in groups & propose solutions or determine what skills and/or information they would need to manage or solve the problem(s).
  • Programmed learning

    A procedure that provides information to the learner in small steps, guarantees immediate feedback concerning whether or not the material was learned properly and allows the learner the pace with which she can go through the material.
  • Project-based learning

    Project based learning is a "systematic teaching method that engages students in learning knowledge and skills through an extended inquiry process structured around complex, authentic questions and carefully designed products and tasks".
  • Project-based learning (PBL)

    Project-based learning (PBL) is considered an alternative to paper-based, rote memorization, teacher-led classrooms. Proponents of project-based learning cite numerous benefits to the implementation of these strategies in the classroom including a greater depth of understanding of concepts, broader knowledge base, improved communication and interpersonal/social skills, enhanced leadership skills, increased creativity, and improved writing skills.
  • Psychomotor Domain

    The area of observable performance of skills that requires some degree of neuromuscular coordination.
  • Qualitative research

    Qualitative research is a method of inquiry employed in many different academic disciplines, traditionally in the social sciences, but also in market research and further contexts. Qualitative researchers aim to gather an in-depth understanding of human behavior and the reasons that govern such behavior. The qualitative method investigates the why and how of decision making, not just what, where, when. Hence, smaller but focused samples are more often used than large samples.
  • Quiz

    A short test administered by the instructor to measure achievement on material recently taught or on any small, newly completed unit of work.
  • Reasoning

    Defined very differently depending on the context of the understanding of reason as a form of knowledge. The Logical definition is the act of using reason, to derive a conclusion from certain premises, using a given methodology; and the two most commonly used explicit methods to reach a conclusion are deductive reasoning and inductive reasoning. However, within idealist philosophical contexts, reasoning is the mental process which informs our imagination, perceptions, thoughts, and feelings with whatever intelligibility these appear to contain; and thus links our experience with universal meaning.
  • Reflection

    The ability to encounter information and make it part of one s existing cognitive structure. Reflection results in the creation of knowledge.
  • Remediation

    Using feedback to increase a learner's knowledge and skills relative to a specific learning objective.
  • Role play

    Role play is a simulation exercise where persons take on assumed roles in order to act out a scenario in a contrived setting. The learners or participants can act out the assigned roles in order to explore the scenario, apply skills (maybe communication, negotiation, debate etc.), experience the scenario from another view point, evoke and understand emotions that maybe alien to them. It helps to make sense of theory and gathers together the concepts into a practical experience.
  • Rote learning

    A learning technique which avoids grasping the inner complexities and inferences of the subject that is being learned and instead focuses on memorizing the material so that it can be recalled by the learner exactly the way it was read or heard.
  • Scaffolding

    An instructional approach that involves a progressive process of building on sequenced ideas to achieve an original learning outcome.
  • SCORM

    a set of interrelated technical specifications built upon the work of the AICC, IMS and IEEE to create one unified content model. These specifications enable the reuse of Web-based learning content across multiple environments. SCORM dictates how an LMS must make the API (Application Programme Interface) available to the content, so content developers know exactly how to write the JavaScript code to locate and call the API.
  • Self Assessment

    Assessment completed by the learner him/herself to evaluate his/her own performance, strengths and weaknesses.
  • Self regulation

    Self-regulation is a critical competency that underlies the mindful, intentional, and thoughtful behaviors of younger and older children alike. The term self-regulation (sometimes also called executive function) refers to the capacity to control one’s impulses, both to stop doing something, if needed (even if one wants to continue doing it) and to start doing something, if needed (even if one doesn’t want to do it). Self-regulation is not to be confused with obedience or compliance; when children are truly self-regulated they behave the same way whether or not an adult is watching. Self-regulated children can delay gratification and suppress their impulses long enough to think ahead to the possible consequences of their actions or to consider alternative actions that would be more appropriate. Self-regulation is not limited to the social-emotional domain; it can also apply to cognitive behaviors, such as remembering or paying attention. In fact, research indicates that these two facets of self regulation are related: children who cannot control their emotions at age four are unlikely to be able to follow the teachers’ directions at age six, and will not become reflective learners in middle and high school.
  • Self-concept

    The mental and conceptual awareness and persistent regard that sentient beings hold with regard their own being. Components of a being's self-concept include physical, psychological, and social attributes; and can be influenced by its attitudes, habits, beliefs and ideas. These components and attributes can each be condensed to the general concepts of self-image and the self-esteem.
  • Self-directed learners

    Students who follow a process for learning that is largely self-taught and involves motivation, self-responsibility, the ability to self-assess, comfort with autonomy, and the ability to transfer and synthesize knowledge and skills in relevant applications.
  • Self-efficacy

    The belief that one has the capabilities to execute the courses of actions required to manage prospective situations. Unlike efficacy, which is the power to produce an effect (in essence, competence), self-efficacy is the belief (however accurate) that one has the power to produce that effect.
  • Self-esteem

    Self-esteem is a term used in psychology to reflect a person's overall emotional evaluation of his or her own worth. It is a judgment of oneself as well as an attitude toward the self.
  • Self-paced learning

    Learning in which the pace and timing of content delivery are determined by the learner.
  • Semantic Web

    It is sometimes used as a synonym for "Web 3.0". The Semantic Web provides a common framework that allows data to be shared and reused across application, enterprise, and community boundaries. It is a collaborative effort led by W3C with participation from a large number of researchers and industrial partners. It is based on the Resource Description Framework (RDF), which integrates a variety of applications using XML for syntax and URIs for naming. A concept proposed by World Wide Web inventor Tim Berners-Lee.
  • Simulation

    Simulation is the imitation of the operation of a real-world process or system over time. The act of simulating something first requires that a model be developed; this model represents the key characteristics or behaviors/functions of the selected physical or abstract system or process. The model represents the system itself, whereas the simulation represents the operation of the system over time.
  • Simulations

    Highly interactive applications that allow the learner to model or role-play in a scenario. Simulations enable the learner to practice skills or behaviors in a risk-free environment.
  • Skill

    The ability to perform a psychomotor activity that contributes to the effective performance of a task.
  • Social constructivist

    Social constructivists view learning as a social process. It does not take place only within an individual, nor is it a passive development of behaviors that are shaped by external forces. Meaningful learning occurs when individuals are engaged in social activities.
  • Social learning

    Learning is a cognitive process that takes place in a social context and can occur through social communication, observation and reflection. This known as Social learning theory proposed by Albert Bandura (1977).
  • Social media learning

    Social media learning refers to the acquisition of information and skills through social technologies that allow people to collaborate, converse, provide input, create content and share it. Examples of social media learning can occur through online social networking platforms, blogs and microblogs (like Twitter), online talk radio and wikis.
  • Social Networking Website

    A social networking service (also social networking site, SNS or social media) is an online platform that is used by people to build social networks or social relations with other people who share similar personal or career interests, activities, backgrounds or real-life connections.
  • Soft skills

    As opposed to hard skills. Business skills are more related to competencies rather than skills, such as leadershipc or listening.
  • Statistical significance

    Statistical significance is the low probability of obtaining at least as extreme results given that the null hypothesis is true. It is an integral part of statistical hypothesis testing where it helps investigators to decide if a null hypothesis can be rejected.
  • Story-based

    E-Learning Environment developed by Dr. Hussein Abdelfatah, The content in this learning environment was organized so that every activity using the interactive mathematics software was a prerequisite for entering the next one, either in the structure of geometric concepts or in the geometric story context. For more details: Springer, ZDM July 2011, Volume 43, Issue 3, pp 441–450
  • Storyboard

    A series of pictures which support the action and content that will be contained in an audiovisual sequence.
  • Storytelling

    Storytelling is one of the oldest forms of oral communication and plays a very important role in education, particularly for younger children. Teachers and trainers who incorporate storytelling into their repertoire of teaching skills can enhance student engagement with almost any subject. In this free online course you will learn about storytelling as a way of organizing information, conveying emotions, and building a sense of community. You will learn how effective storytelling can lead to an altered state of consciousness that deepens the relationship between teacher and students. Three stories are told that illustrate the theoretical model of storytelling and storytelling ethics and the need for trust between storyteller and listeners are discussed. This free online storytelling course will be of great interest to teachers and trainers who want to learn more about the effectiveness of storytelling as a tool that can enhance learning within the classroom.
  • Streaming media

    Streaming or media streaming is a technique for transferring data so that it can be processed as a steady and continuous stream. Streaming technologies are becoming increasingly important with the growth of the Internet because most users do not have fast enough access to download large multimedia files quickly. With streaming, the client browser or plug-in can start displaying the data before the entire file has been transmitted.
  • Study Skills

    Sets of skills associated with an individual's ability to learn, including note taking, time management, and study planning.
  • Summative assessment

    Questions and assignments intended to serve as measures of course or program achievement or mastery of knowledge and skills.
  • Summative evaluation

    The methodical collection and appraisal of information that informs decisions about whether a course or program should be maintained, improved, or terminated.
  • Surveys

    A survey is a data collection tool used to gather information about individuals. Surveys are commonly used in psychology research to collect self-report data from study participants. A survey may focus on factual information about individuals, or it might aim to collect the opinions of the survey takers. A survey can be administered in a couple of different ways. In one method known as a structured interview, the researcher asks each participant the questions. In the other method known as a questionnaire, the participant fills out the survey on his or her own.
  • Synchronous learning

    Real-time learning situation that can include immediate, two-way communication between participants.
  • Task

    The smallest essential part of a job. A unit of work activity that is a logical and necessary action in the performance of a job. It can be described in simple terms. Has an identifiable start and end point and results in a measurable accomplishment or product.
  • Task analysis

    Involves the systematic process of identifying specific tasks to be trained; and a detailed analysis of each of those tasks. Task analysis information can be used as the foundation for: developing instructional objectives, identifying and selecting appropriate instructional strategies, sequencing instructional content, identifying and selecting appropriate instructional media, and designing performance evaluation tools. It is always done in the context of a specific job. It facilitates training program design by providing a description of the fundamental elements of a job.
  • Teleconference

    A teleconference or teleseminar is the live exchange and mass articulation of information among several persons and machines remote from one another but linked by a telecommunications system. Terms such as audio conferencing, telephone conferencing and phone conferencing are also sometimes used to refer to teleconferencing.
  • Tempus

    Tempus is the European Union’s programme which supports the modernisation of higher education in the Partner Countries of Eastern Europe, Central Asia, the Western Balkans and the Mediterranean region, mainly through university cooperation projects.
  • Test

    A device or technique used to measure the performance, skill level, or knowledge of a learner on a specific subject matter. It usually involves quantification of results -- a number that represents an ability or characteristic of the person being tested.
  • Training

    Learning that is provided in order to improve performance on the present job.
  • Tutorial

    An instructional program that presents new information to the student efficiently and provides practice exercises based on that information. A lesson design used to teach an entire concept. Interactive instruction that asks questions based on the information presented, requests student responses, and evaluates student responses. It is self-paced, accommodates a variety of users, and generally involves some questioning, branching, and options for review.
  • Validation

    A process of testing the effectiveness of instruction by administering the criterion test immediately after the instruction. Also, a process through which a course is administered and revised until learners effectively attain the base line objectives.
  • Videoconferencing

    Conducting a conference between two or more participants at different sites by using to transmit audio and . For example, a point-to-point (two-person) video conferencing works much like a video telephone. Using video and audio signals to link participants at different and remote locations.
  • Virtual classroom

    A scheduled offering that is available at multiple locations (either desktop or classroom) via a network.
  • Virtual Laboratory

    “ The Virtual Laboratory is an interactive environment for creating and conducting simulated experiments: a playground for experimentation. ”.
  • Virtual reality

    An artificial computer-generated environment that is experienced through sensory stimuli and in which special equipment allows the user to interact with the simulation.
  • Web 2.0

    Web 2.0 refers to an emerging network-centric platform to support distributed, collaborative and cumulative creation by its users (Hagel, 2005, para. 6). It is about using the World Wide Web to create, as well as access content through social computing tools.
  • Web Ontology Language (OWL)

    The OWL Web Ontology Language is designed to process the content of information so that it is more presentable, understandable and/or meaningful to humans. This is related to the principles underpinning the semantic Web.
  • Web-based training

    Any instructional event that can be accessed via the Internet or the Web.
  • WebCT

    Web Course Tools designed to author online learning, WBT authoring, delivery and management. Authoring is entirely Web based too.
  • Zone of proximal development

    Russian social scientist Lev Votgotsky (1896 - 1934) put forward the idea that the gap or zone between the learner’s actual developmental level and potential developmental level can be narrowed through interaction/collaboration with peers of greater abilities.

Dr. Hussein Abdelfatah © Copyright 2016, All Rights Reserved